USDC vs USDT: A Deep Dive into the World of Top Stablecoins


Stablecoins have become an increasingly popular option for cryptocurrency users who seek the stability of traditional fiat currencies. These digital assets are pegged to the value of a stable asset, such as the US dollar, and aim to maintain a stable price. However, with so many stablecoin options available in the market, it can be challenging to decide which one to use and to determine which one is the best fit for your needs.

In this article, I will provide you with a detailed comparison of two of the top stablecoins in the market – USDC and USDT. We’ll explore their benefits and drawbacks, provide you with a buyer’s guide, and offer tips on which one to use. My goal is to help you overcome the frustrations and pain points of trying to choose between stablecoins.

By the end of this article, you will have a comprehensive understanding of the world of stablecoins and be better equipped to make an informed decision about whether USDC or USDT is the right stablecoin for you. Let’s start with a brief explanation of what stablecoins are and why it’s essential to choose the right one.

Explanation of what stablecoins are

Stablecoins are digital assets that aim to maintain a stable value relative to a stable asset, such as the US dollar or other fiat currencies, precious metals, or even other cryptocurrencies. They are designed to provide the stability and security of fiat currencies while leveraging the benefits of blockchain technology.

Importance of choosing the right stablecoin

Choosing the right stablecoin is essential for various reasons, including:

  • Ensuring the stability of your investment
  • Minimizing the risk of losing value due a stablecoin losing its peg to the stable asset
  • Accessing Decentralized Finance (DeFi) products in the crypto ecosystem

Brief overview of USDC and USDT

USDC and USDT are two of the most popular stablecoins available in the market. USDC is issued by Circle, a leading fintech company, while USDT is issued by Tether. Both stablecoins are pegged to the US dollar and have gained widespread adoption in the crypto ecosystem. In the following sections, we’ll dive deeper into the differences between USDC and USDT and help you decide which one to choose.

What are USDC and USDT?

Their similarities and differences

While both USDC and USDT share the same goal of being a stablecoin pegged to the US dollar, there are some key differences between the two. Some similarities and differences include:

  • Both USDC and USDT are ERC-20 tokens that live primarily on the Ethereum blockchain. They are also supported by many other blockchains.
  • USDC is issued by Circle, a financial services company, and by Coinbase, the leading US cryptocurrency exchange, while USDT is issued by Tether, a blockchain company.
  • USDC and USDT have different levels of transparency.
    • USDC undergoes regular audits to ensure that its reserves match the number of USDC in circulation. 
    • USDT, on the other hand, has faced scrutiny over its lack of transparency and has been accused of not having enough reserves to back all of the USDT in circulation.
  • USDT has a larger market capitalization and higher trading volume than USDC.

Comparison of market cap, trading volumes, and usage

As of March 2023, the market capitalization of USDT is around $71 billion, while USDC’s market cap is around $43 billion. USDT also has higher trading volumes than USDC, with an average daily trading volume of over $36 billion compared to USDC’s average daily trading volume of around $4 billion.

In terms of usage, both USDT and USDC are widely used for trading on cryptocurrency exchanges and for making purchases. However, USDT is more commonly used in Asia, while USDC is more popular in the US.

Overall, understanding the similarities and differences between USDC and USDT can help crypto investors and traders make more informed decisions when choosing which stablecoin to use for their transactions.

Benefits and drawbacks of USDC

Benefits of USDC

  • Regulatory Compliance: USDC stablecoins are developed by CENTRE and issued by licensed institutions that maintain full reserves of the equivalent fiat currency. The reserve is kept in a special bank account that is monitored and regularly audited by an independent company named Grant Thornton LLP.
  • Transparency: Coinbase is a publicly traded company, and Circle has plans to become a publicly traded company. This ensures regular reporting and complete transparency.
  • Wide Adoption: USDC’s combination of cryptocurrency properties and the guarantee of its value granted by leading cryptocurrency giants like Coinbase, Circle, and Binance contributes to its adoption worldwide.

Drawbacks of USDC

  • Centralization: USDC is a centralized stablecoin, which means it relies on a single issuer to maintain its peg to the U.S. dollar. This can lead to vulnerabilities in the system.
  • Reliance on a single issuer: Since USDC is backed by a single issuer, its value may be impacted if the issuer experiences financial difficulties.

Comparison of USDC to other stablecoins in the market

  • USDC has a larger market cap and higher trading volumes compared to other stablecoins like DAI, BUSD and FRAX.
  • USDC’s regulatory compliance and transparency are some of its unique features, which sets it apart from other stablecoins.
  • USDC is less decentralized compared to other stablecoins like DAI, which is backed by a decentralized system of collateralized debt positions (CDPs).

USDC’s transparency and regulatory compliance make it an attractive option for individuals and institutions looking for a reliable and trustworthy stablecoin. However, its centralized nature and reliance on a single issuer are some of its drawbacks. USDC holds up well in comparison to other stablecoins in the market. USDT is the closest competitor to USDC, and USDC tends to be more transparent and offer greater regulatory compliance than USDT.

Benefits and Drawbacks of USDT

Benefits of USDT

USDT has been dominating the stablecoin market since its inception, with a market cap that is significantly higher than its competitors. Here are some of the benefits of using USDT:

  • Market Dominance: USDT has been the most widely used stablecoin in the cryptocurrency market. It holds the highest market cap and trading volume in the stablecoin market, making it highly liquid.
  • High Liquidity: USDT is highly liquid and can be traded on various cryptocurrency exchanges around the world, providing traders with easy access to stablecoins.
  • Wide Acceptance: USDT is widely accepted and supported by many cryptocurrency exchanges and trading platforms. It is also used in many decentralized applications and DeFi protocols.

Drawbacks of USDT

While USDT has been popular among traders and investors, it has also faced criticism and regulatory concerns due to its lack of transparency and centralization. Here are some of the drawbacks of using USDT:

  • Lack of Transparency: The transparency of USDT is not guaranteed, and there have been concerns about whether its reserves match the total supply of USDT tokens in circulation.
  • Regulatory Concerns: USDT has been criticized for its lack of regulatory compliance. In 2021, Tether settled a lawsuit brought by the State of New York. Tether admitted no wrongdoing, but agreed to increased transparency and to release quarterly reports until 2023. But, the lack transparency in the past has led to concerns about the stability of USDT.

Comparison of USDT to other stablecoins in the market

Compared to other stablecoins in the market, USDT has the following characteristics:

  • High market cap and high trading volume.
  • Lack of transparency and regulatory concerns.
  • Wide acceptance and high liquidity.

Overall, USDT’s dominance in the stablecoin market cannot be ignored, but its lack of transparency and regulatory concerns have led many users to look for alternatives such as USDC.


When comparing USDC and USDT, there are a few important factors to consider:

Performance and Stability:

  • USDT has been in the market for a longer time and has a much larger market cap, which gives it a higher level of stability and liquidity.
  • USDC, on the other hand, has shown consistent growth in market share and has gained market dominance in recent years.
  • Between January 1, 2022 and January 1, 2023, USDT declined in market capitalization by 13.5% (from $78.4B to $67.8B). During the same period of time USDC gained 1.2% (from $42.2B to $42.7B).

Security and Collateralization:

  • USDC is backed by a full reserve of the equivalent fiat currency, which is regularly audited by an independent company. This provides a high degree of transparency and security.
  • USDT has been improving in terms of transparency, releasing quarterly financial reports. On Jan. 29, 2023, Tether reported holding:
    • 82.45% of its reserves in cash, cash equivalents, short-term deposits, and commercial paper
    • 4.69% in corporate bonds
    • 9.02% in secured loans to unaffiliated entities
    • 3.85% in other investments, including other cryptocurrency

Blockchain Technology:

  • USDC supports many blockchains: Ethereum, Algorand, Solana, Stellar, Tron, Hedera, Avalanche, Flow, and Polygon
  • USDT is built on multiple blockchains: Bitcoin via Omni, Tron, Ethereum, Algorand, OMG Network, and EOS.

Usage and Liquidity:

  • USDT is widely used across various cryptocurrency exchanges and has high liquidity, making it easy to buy and sell.
  • USDC is also widely used and has been adopted by various payment processors, making it easier to use for everyday transactions.

Overall, both USDC and USDT have their benefits and drawbacks. USDT has market dominance and high liquidity, but its lack of transparency and regulatory concerns may cause some users to hesitate. USDC, on the other hand, offers a higher degree of transparency and compliance, but it may not have the same level of liquidity and market dominance as USDT. Ultimately, the choice between the two stablecoins will depend on the user’s priorities and preferences.

Buyer’s Guide

Making an informed decision when it comes to stablecoins is crucial to ensure that your investment is secure and stable. Here are some tips to help you make an informed decision.

Tips for making informed decisions

  • Research: Conduct thorough research on the stablecoins that interest you, including their performance, stability, and security.
  • Choose regulated stablecoins: Look for stablecoins that are backed by licensed institutions and have transparent audits.
  • Check liquidity: Choose a stablecoin with high liquidity to ensure easy buying and selling.
  • Understand the risks: Be aware of the risks associated with using stablecoins. Some stable coins are not very stable, and they can lose their peg to the stable asset in times when there is low liquidity.

Lessons Learned from Recent Stablecoin Collapses

Stablecoins are digital assets that aim to maintain a stable value against a reference currency or asset. While most stablecoins are fully collateralized and issued by centralized entities, there have been attempts to create decentralized and algorithmic stablecoins that are self-regulating. However, most of these projects have failed, such as Basis Cash, Iron Finance, TerraUSD, and Fei USD.

TerraUSD, an algorithmic stablecoin backed by the LUNA token, reached a market cap of $18.7 billion before collapsing in May 2022. Large amounts of capital were required to prop it up in a depegging event, and when over $2 billion worth of TerraUSD was unstaked and liquidated, sell-offs drove the price down from $1 to $0.91. Holders flocked to exits, resulting in a death spiral of LUNA and the TerraUSD being permanently depegged.

The Future of Stablecoins: Decentralized Protocols and Innovative Models

Despite the recent failures of decentralized stablecoins (namely, Iron Finance and Terra LUNA UST), many protocols are working on decentralized stablecoin models. The regulatory risks associated with centralized stablecoins, such as the recent winding down of BUSD, have only accelerated the efforts towards building a truly decentralized stablecoin model.

The launch of protocol-native stablecoins by Curve (viz., crvUSD) and AAVE (viz., GHO) in 2023 is eagerly anticipated by the market. These stablecoins will have novel designs built on their respective base protocols, and features that strengthen their respective ecosystems.

Other stablecoin models are still being experimented with, such as USDD, an endogenous collateralized stablecoin backed by multiple tokens including BTC, USDT, and USDC. Projects like Rai and Olympus are attempting to create stablecoins that are not pegged to fiat currencies. Ampleforth is another interesting project, featuring a pure rebase stablecoin with no collateral. As the development of stablecoins continues, we can expect more innovative solutions to emerge in the future.

Factors to consider when choosing between USDC and USDT

When deciding between USDC and USDT, here are some factors to consider:

  • Transparency: USDC is more transparent than USDT, as it is backed by regulated institutions and has regular audits. USDT has been criticized for its lack of transparency.
  • Security: Both USDC and USDT are considered secure stablecoins, but USDC has a stronger emphasis on security due to its regulatory compliance.
  • Centralized Exchange (CeFi) Liquidity: USDT has higher liquidity than USDC on crypto exchanges, as it is the most widely used stablecoin in the CeFi market.
  • 90% of trading volume occurs on centralized exchanges (CeFi), which predominantly use USDT as a trading pair.
  • Decentralized Exchange (DeFi) Liquidity: USDC has higher liquidity than USDT in Ethereum DeFi. USDC accounts for 70% of on-chain DeFi stablecoin transactions.
  • Regulatory concerns: USDT has faced regulatory scrutiny in the past, while USDC has been praised for its regulatory compliance.

Comparison of other stablecoins in the market

In addition to USDC and USDT, there are many other stablecoins in the market. Here are some stablecoins to consider when making a purchasing decision:

  • DAI: A decentralized stablecoin that is backed by crypto assets rather than fiat currency.
  • BUSD: A stablecoin developed by Paxos for Binance that is backed by US dollars and has a focus on regulatory compliance.
  • PAX: A stablecoin that is fully backed by US dollars and has a focus on transparency and regulatory compliance.
  • TUSD: A stablecoin that is fully backed by US dollars and has a focus on transparency and regulatory compliance.

By considering these factors and researching the stablecoins in the market, you can make an informed decision when purchasing stablecoins. Remember to always consider the risks associated with investing and to only invest what you can afford to lose.

In Review

Recap of the key points discussed in the article

Throughout this article, we have explored the world of stablecoins and focused on two of the most popular options – USDC and USDT. We have discussed the benefits and drawbacks of each stablecoin, including their market dominance, liquidity, degree of collateralization, and regulatory concerns. We also compared USDC and USDT in terms of their blockchain technology, performance, stability, and security. Finally, we provided a buyer’s guide to help you make an informed decision and compared other stablecoins in the market.

Final recommendation on which stablecoin to choose

Choosing the right stablecoin depends on your specific needs and preferences. Both USDC and USDT have their own advantages and disadvantages, and you should carefully consider them before making a decision. USDT has been around longer and has a larger market share, while USDC is more transparent and strives for regulatory compliance.

In general, I recommend USDC for those who prioritize transparency and regulation, while USDT may be a better choice for those who prioritize market dominance and liquidity.

Future outlook on the stablecoin market

The stablecoin market has shown tremendous growth over the past few years and is expected to continue expanding in the future. As traditional financial institutions and regulators increasingly recognize the potential of stablecoins, we may see more adoption and integration of stablecoins into the mainstream financial system.

Possible Stablecoin Regulations

Governments and regulators are taking action following major setbacks like the Terra / UST collapse and FTX meltdown, which resulted in significant losses for investors.

  • International Standard Setting Bodies such as the FSB and BSBC are setting regulatory standards on digital assets to drive consistent regulations globally.
  • The BIS is working on supervision and surveillance to enable central banks to effectively monitor the balance sheet of stablecoins.
  • Countries such as the U.S. and Singapore are tackling the matter with the introduction of a stablecoin bill and engagement with industry players to develop a holistic regulatory framework, respectively.
  • The HKMA issued regulatory frameworks that require stablecoin issuers to be licensed for operations, and there is a possibility of regulations banning algorithmic stablecoins becoming more commonplace.


Among the top stablecoins, USDT remains the most popular due to its early creation and high liquidity. However, new stablecoins with innovative features and enhanced security measures are entering the market, which may present new opportunities and challenges for users and investors alike.

As the stablecoin landscape evolves, it is essential to stay informed and up-to-date on the latest developments in the industry. With the regulatory environment rapidly changing, users and investors should pay close attention to how governments and regulators approach stablecoins. Despite the challenges, the stablecoin market has a bright future ahead and is expected to play an increasingly important role in the broader cryptocurrency ecosystem and in the broader global economy.

If you would like to do a deep dive on stablecoins, I offer a course entitled “Stablecoins for Beginners: A Complete Guide.

David Anderson
David Anderson

About the Author

David Anderson is a seasoned cryptocurrency expert with over a decade of experience in the industry. As a systems and software engineer, David’s journey into the world of cryptocurrency began when he discovered a hacker mining Worldcoin on one of his servers in 2013. Since then, he has been actively involved in the mining, trading, and investing of digital assets, and has coached many others in the field. David’s passion for technology and his desire to get in early on technologies that will impact the future led him to become a certified Blockchain Solution Architect in 2021. Join David in the Bitfolio Academy Coaching Community and learn from his wealth of knowledge and experience in the exciting world of cryptocurrency investing. For classes or coaching, contact him via his website,

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